We developed a new method to analyze astronomical and space surveillance imaging data to characterize sources and constrain physics models of dark energy. Our approach relies on numerical forward simulation of images, including source properties (e.g., brightness, morphology, and spectral features), observing conditions (e.g., atmosphere turbulence and telescope image aberrations), and detector response. We embed these simulations into a Monte Carlo statistical framework to characterize noise distributions and propagate maximal information about sources in compressed form. Because our statistical characterization of images retains all statistical information, we are able to optimally combine information from multiple images to derive new insights that are often impossible with any single observation.
Traditional astronomical image analysis relies on point estimators of source properties extracted into a "catalog" for downstream processing. Such point estimators invariably become biased and sub-optimal as various systematic errors become important and as the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements decreases. With a statistically sampled forward model of the sensor pixel data, we are less prone to biased inferences and can regulate the measurements with arbitrarily low signal-to-noise. With traditional source catalogs (which effectively discard most statistical information about the image at the outset) the only option for combining images is "stacking," during which a median or similar filtering operation is applied. This is an intrinsically lossy numerical operation leading to sub-optimal inferences of the observed source properties. Using statistical "importance sampling," however, we can combine the information from multiple images of a single source and/or related sources without loss of information.
Determining the orbits of moving objects from optical telescopes entails many challenges driven by gaps in data exploitation. These gaps include
New data processing approaches have been motivated by closing these gaps to use more of the data of all qualities and to propagate uncertainties for more accurate results and more flexible analysis workflows (see figure).
The technologies developed in this project have had immediate impacts on remote sensing applications, such as space surveillance and nonproliferation monitoring. Results have already been incorporated into briefings for programmatic customers and external customers in the national security domain. We demonstrated new methods of data exploitation that can be applied to a wide variety of programs where data volumes are growing. This led to externally sponsored work for our project team members. Internal to Laboratory, the results of this project led to significant contributions from the astronomy team to a new institution-wide Data Science Institute.
The astronomical and remote sensing communities are in the midst of rapid technological change as sensors become commoditized. Data exploitation is the key focus for future advances. This research has established a path forward for optimal, sensitive, high-cadence, or distributed sensing applications. We are engaged in transferring these methods to upcoming astronomical sky surveys led by DOE and NASA, with support from each agencies’ relevant program offices.
Dawson, W. A. and M. D. Schneider. 2016. "Synthesis of Disparate Optical Imaging Data for Space Domain Awareness." Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Conference, Wailea, HI, September 2016. LLNL-CONF-703178 and LLNL-PRES-703026.
Dawson, W. A., M. D. Schneider, and C. Kamath. 2016. "Blind Detection of Ultra-faint Streaks with a Maximum Likelihood Method." Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Conference, Wailea, HI, September 2016. LLNL-CONF-703048.
Schneider, M. D. 2016. "Generalized Multiple Importance Sampling for Source Characterization in Multi-Epoch Imaging." Center for Advanced Signal and Image Sciences (CASIS) workshop, Livermore, CA, May 2016. LLNL-PRES-691561.
Schneider, M. D., et al. 2017. "Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear." The Astrophysical Journal, 839 (1). April 2017. doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/839/1/25. LLNL-JRNL-697380.