Stefan Hau-Riege (15-ERD-026)
The x-ray free-electron laser can be used to control the creation of warm dense matter—a plasma state that is not very well understood, and also can be used to probe high-energy-density materials. As such, x-ray free-electron lasers, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California, can enhance our understanding of the structure and dynamics of high-energy-density matter. High-energy-density experiments on these laser systems are maturing and calling into question some long-held ideas in high-energy-density science. However, such experiments are complex to design and execute, data analysis is complicated, and there is pressure to complete experiments in one pass. We plan to develop the tools necessary for researchers to design and optimize x-ray free-electron laser high-energy-density experiments. Developing these tools will require a three-pronged approach of (1) theory, modeling, and simulations; (2) data analysis and in-line experimental support; and (3) experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source.
For this project, we are developing and implementing an end-to-end model of experiments to facilitate design and analysis of efficient and successful high-energy-density science experimental campaigns as well as strategies and algorithms capable of providing in-line experimental support to handle x-ray free-electron laser data streams in excess of 10 GB/s. We are also performing experiments to guide development of the simulation tool. Even though the Linac Coherent Light Source produces high-quality light, pulses are not reproducible, so we will simulate a representative number of different realizations for high-performance computing. Simulation elements will include x-ray propagation, x-ray interactions with optics, sample interaction at low to high intensities, and signal generation and detection.
This project will enhance LLNL's core competencies in high-energy-density science and high-performance computing, simulation, and data science. The goal of this proposal is to enable us to effectively use x-ray free-electron lasers to develop a fundamental understanding of complex nonideal plasmas and high-pressure materials and to help validate the models used in stockpile stewardship science and high-energy-density codes.
FY16 Accomplishments and Results
In FY16 we (1) extended our simulation capability from modeling the interaction of the radiation field with a spatially extended optic as a simple plane to correctly treat the spatial extent of the optic, and applied this model to the Linac Coherent Light Source beam line (see figure); (2) modeled the interaction of the radiation field with crystals to obtain their spectral response, and with structured samples to predict phase-contrast images; and (3) collaborated with various experimentalists at the Linac Coherent Light Source by providing modeling support based on our x-ray free-electron laser simulation capability, which includes x-ray Thompson scattering experiments on rare-gas clusters.
Publications and Presentations
- Chalupsky, J., et al., "Imprinting a focused x-ray laser beam to measure its full spatial characteristics." Phys. Rev. Appl. 4 (2015). LLNL-JRNL-722086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.4.014004
- Hau-Riege, S. P., and B. J. Bennion, "Reproducible radiation-damage processes in proteins irradiated by intense x-ray pulses." Phys. Rev. E 91 (2015). LLNL-JRNL-662682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.91.022705
- Nass, K., et al., "Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams." J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 225 (2015). LLNL-JRNL-663001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577515002349
- Pardini, T., D. Cocco, and S. P. Hau-Riege, "Effect of slope errors on the performance of mirrors for x-ray free electron laser applications." Optic. Express 23(25), 31889 (2015). LLNL-JRNL-677641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.031889
- Wierzchowski, W., et al., "Synchrotron topographic evaluation of strain around craters generated by irradiation with x-ray pulses from free electron laser with different intensities." Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 364, 20 (2015). LLNL-JRNL-694255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.07.115