Functional Photoresists for Energy Applications

Juergen Biener | 18-ERD-004

Project Overview

Monolithic ultralow-density porous bulk materials have attracted much interest due to many emerging applications in the areas of catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and thermal insulation. Monolithic ultralow-density porous bulk materials are also important components of high-energy-density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. However, despite tremendous progress made in the synthesis of porous materials, deterministic and independent control over microscopic architecture, density, and composition remain key issues. In addition, their integration with high-precision devices requires cost- and time-intensive mechanical machining that reduces reproducibility by generating debris, and limits the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) shapes that can be realized.

In our project, we solved these challenges by developing a universal templating capability that provides deterministic and independent control over density, composition, architecture, and macroscopic sample shape. This was achieved by developing the technology to (1) 3D-print ultra-high resolution, ultra-high precision polymeric micro-lattice templates; (2) coat these templates with the desired materials; and (3) remove the template. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides the atomic-scale coating-thickness required to precisely control density. We also developed a templating approach for carbon microlattices applicable to HED and broader applications using additive manufacturing technologies.

Mission Impact

This project directly supports Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's core competencies in high-energy-density (HED) science and advanced materials and manufacturing, as well as the Laboratory's mission focus areas in stockpile stewardship and energy and resource security. Technologies developed under this project support the Laboratory's National Ignition Facility, and may impact other fields, such as energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and possibly structures for bioengineering.

Publications, Presentations, and Patents

Biener, J. 2018a. "Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Foams for High Energy Density Physics." American Society of Precision Engineering Winter Topical Meeting: Precision Engineering for Micro and Nanotechnology, Livermore, CA, February 2018. LLNL-PRES-744388

——— 2018b. "A Computational Model for Direct Laser Writing Based on Two-Photon Polymerization." Los Alamos National Laboratory 4th Additive Manufacturing Cross-Joint Working Group (JOWOG), Albuquerque, NM, October 2018. LLNL-PRES-759865

——— 2018c. "Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Materials for Laser Plasma Experiments." Los Alamos National Laboratory 4th Additive Manufacturing Cross-Joint Working Group (JOWOG), Albuquerque, NM, October 2018. LLNL-PRES-963446

——— 2018d. "Optimization of 3D Printed Low-Density Foam Liners for Inertial Confinement Fusion." 2018 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting and Exhibit, Boston, MA, November 2018. LLNL-POST-762384

Garcia-Taormina, A. R., et al. 2019. "Scaling-Up of Nano-Architected Microstructures: A Mechanical Assessment." Advanced Engineering Materials 21(11). doi:10.1002/adem.201900687. LLNL-JRNL-776826

Karnes, J.J., et al. 2019a. "An Atomistic Approach Toward Modeling Additive Manufacturing." The Berkeley Statistical Mechanics Meeting, Berkeley, CA, Jan, 2019. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.7557128.v2. LLNL-POST-765018

——— 2019b. "Toward Photopolymer Resin Design for Additive Manufacturing." 6th Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) Workshop and Symposium, Albuquerque, NM, August 2019. LLNL-POST-785020

——— 2020c. "Network Topology of Crosslinked Acrylate Polymers." Berkeley Statistical Mechanics Meeting, University of California, Berkeley, CA, January 2020. LLNL-POST-800497

——— 2020d. "On the Network Topology of Crosslinked Acrylate Photopolymers: A Molecular Dynamics Case Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 124(441): 9201-9215. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c05319. LLNL-JRNL-808978

Liang, Siwei, et al. 2019. Curable Polymer Resins for 3D-Printable Hierarchical Nanoporous Foams and Aerogels. US Patent Application 2020/0317870 A1.

Oakdale, J. S., et al. 2019. "Design and Development of Low Density Tantalum Oxide Hohlraum Liners via Templating of Additive Manufactured Lattices." 23rd Target Fabrication Meeting, Annapolis, MD, April 2019. LLNL-PRES-948566