Accurate Temperature Determination from X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Absorption Measurements

Federica Coppari | 18-ERD-001

Project Overview

Measuring temperature is of fundamental importance to high-energy-density science (HED) for studying melting, phase transitions, and equations of state. However, temperature determination of high pressure and high temperature (0.1-1 electron-Volts) condensed matter remains one of the biggest challenges in such experiments. This project used a combination of advanced experimental techniques and state-of-the-art computational methods to construct a framework relating the observed attenuation of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) signals due to thermal fluctuations to the actual temperature achieved in the experiments. This approach was benchmarked against low-temperature resistive heating diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments and cross-validated at higher pressure and temperature by combining the two complementary and independent techniques, diffraction and EXAFS.

Mission Impact

This project tackled one of the great challenges of current HED science: determining temperature in experiments on condensed matter at extreme conditions. The ability to measure temperature greatly increases the programmatic value of expensive experiments carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, setting new directions and creating a new capability impacting many existing programs. The high and broad impact of the scientific questions tackled with this LDRD work reinforced the visibility of the Laboratory internationally and further established it as a world leader in this area.

Publications, Presentations, and Patents

Briggs, R., et al. 2019. Measurement of Body-Centered Cubic Gold and Melting under Shock Compression. Physical Review Letters, 123, 45701. LLNL-JRNL-782110.

Descamps, A. et al. 2020. An approach for the measurement of the bulk temperature of single crystal diamond using an x‑ray free electron laser. Scientific Reports 10:14564. LLNL-JRNL-822306.

Wollenweber, L. et al. 2021. High-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the high energy density scientific instrument at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser. Review of Scientific Instruments 92, 013101. LLNL-JRNL-822307.

Briggs, R. "Shock discoveries at X-ray light sources." Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute (HEMI), Johns Hopkins University, October 2019 (Invited lecture). LLNL-PRES-804444.

Briggs, R. "Phase transitions and Debye-Waller factor in shocked copper," Laboratory for Laser Energetics/Lawrence Livermore virtual meeting series, January 2020. LLNL-PRES-804438.

Coppari, F. "Probing material properties in laser-driven dynamic compression experiments with EXAFS," University Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV, 2018 (Invited lecture). LLNL-PRES-759184.

Coppari, F. "X-ray diffraction and EXAFS spectroscopy to study material properties under dynamic extreme conditions," 27th AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Rio de Janeiro, August 2019 (Contributed talk). LLNL-PRES-784765.

Coppari, F. "A new phase transition in laser-shock compressed gold from X-ray diffraction at the Dynamic Compression Sector beamline," 27th Annual Meeting of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society (SILS 2019), Camerino, Italy, September 2019 (Invited talk). LLNL-PRES-789106.

Coppari, F. "Unraveling the exotic properties of water ices with laser-driven compression and x-ray diffraction," University of Camerino, Italy, September 2019 (Invited lecture). LLNL-PRES-778506.

Coppari, F. "Dynamic compression at synchrotron light sources: a new phase transition in shock-compressed gold," Spring8, Sayo, Japan, February 2020 (Invited lecture). LLNL-PRES-805229.

Coppari, F. "Using giant lasers to unravel the exotic properties of water ice at planetary interior conditions," Institute for Planetary Materials, Okayama University, Misasa, Japan, February 2020 (Invited lecture). LLNL-PRES-804970.

Smith, G. "Extended x-ray fine structure as a temperature probe for dynamic compression experiments," Livermore Summer Student Slam, August 2020. LLNL-PRES-813229.

Vasquez, M. "Towards Temperature Determination from X-Ray Diffraction in Dynamic Compression Experiments," Livermore Summer Student Slam, August 2020. LLNL-PRES-812970.