Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses for 25 Kilo-Electronvolt X-Ray Imaging

Bernard Kozioziemski | 19-FS-044

Project Overview

X-ray imaging is used in many different Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory missions, including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density (HED) applications. Many approaches to imaging in these environments rely on using either a pinhole camera or point-projection source, which both limit the resolution to the size of the pinhole or source, respectively. These limits are typically tens of micrometers for the resolution.

In this feasibility study, we explored one class of x-ray optics, termed Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLL), for their potential application to Laboratory missions. We demonstrated good focusing capabilities for one test lens at 22 kiloelectron volt (keV), and we developed simulations that approximate the optic performance to allow design of future optics. The first imaging demonstration with the MLL showed good focusing and surprisingly uniform energy response that is matched with the multi-slice simulations. The very short focal length of the optic, only 17 millimeters (mm) for 22 keV, is significantly shorter than state-of-the-art optics. The short focal length makes it possible to achieve very large magnifications and relatively high collection efficiency for x-ray energies greater than 25 keV, which is not currently possible with other optics.

Mission Impact

Our research enables new application spaces, such as collimating x-ray backlighters in ICF or HED applications, high-resolution imaging, and imaging with very high x-ray energies. Improved resolution of x-ray imaging optics at higher energies will benefit HED applications by allowing access to new materials and relevant spatial scales to address turbulence and material strength. Thus, this project supports the Laboratory's core competency in HED science.

Publications, Presentations, and Patents

Kozioziemski, B., et al. 2019a. "An Introduction to Multi-layer Laue Lenses," National Diagnostic Working Group Meeting, Livermore, CA, December 2019. LLNL-PRES-799073

——— 2019b. "A Light Field X-ray Microscope," Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) Application US2019/033743, International Publication Number WO 2020/236181 A1.