Glass-Engraved Meta-Optics for High-Power Lasers

Eyal Feigenbaum | 21-ERD-002

Project Overview

We have proposed and studied a method for modifying a thin layer on a fused silica glass surface to alter its optical properties, such as its refractive index (i.e., a meta-surface). The meta-surface (MS) fabrication process is based on a previously in-house developed process, in which the glass is directionally etched through a metal nano-particle mask, formed using dewetting of a thin metal layer. This process before this project enabled rudimentary anti-reflective (AR) layer and local patterning of index. Here, we have advanced the process toward implementation of three main applications that are key to high power laser applications: 1) AR layer that is both broad-band and broad angle of acceptance; 2) thin optical elements (e.g., lens); 3) retardation waveplates. All of which were implemented as an ultrathin MS etched (and thus monolithic) to the glass substrate, with the native scalability, laser damage durability and mechanical robustness of the original process. To this aim, the etching mask resistance to erosion was improved by different means, such as: optimization of mask material; optimization of process parameters; invention of a method for growing the nano-particles (NP) size while maintaining their location. This led to a demonstration of AR MS layer on both surfaces of a 2" round glass window with low reflection band that spans from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared, with acceptance angle of ±400, and for both polarizations. A parametric study of laser-raster scan dewetting of metal films, and of the etching of the end-result mask, informed a construction of system for spatially tailoring the mask to a desired optical function, and implementing millimeter to centimeter size optical elements (e.g., axicon lens, shadowing elements). Three different methods of implementing bi-refringent MS layers (from fused silica glass which is not birefringent) have been proposed, implemented, tested and further improved. These advancements could affect the obtainable powers of present and future high power and energy laser systems.

Mission Impact

The MS technology developed during this project is strongly aligned with the Lasers and Optical Science and Technology core competency. It is also aligned with the Core Competency for Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for material design and manufacturing and for scaling-up laser-optics designs. It enables new laser system designs and enhances the energetics, performance, and stability of high-energy/high-average power/short-pulse lasers. All-glass MS technology could advance critical components to laser systems, such as AR coatings (bandwidth, angular acceptance, reflectivity) and waveplates, enabling higher power in laser systems, and its laser and mechanical robustness. Its potential to enable computer-generated patterns printed thin optics (meta-optics) on the scales and the robustness that facilitate high power lasers could improve the energetics, and performance and operation of high-power lasers.

Publications,Presentations, and Patents

N. J. Ray, J. H. Yoo, S. Baxamusa, H. T. Nguyen, S. Elhadj, E. Feigenbaum, "Tuning Gold Nanoparticle Size with Fixed Interparticle Spacing in Large-Scale Arrays: Implications for Plasmonics and Nanoparticle Etching Masks." ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 4, 2733-2742 (2021)

N. J. Ray, J. H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, E. Feigenbaum, "Large Aperture and Durable Glass-Engraved Optical Metasurfaces Using Nanoparticle Etching Masks: Prospects and Future Directions." J. Phys. Photonics 3 032004 (2021)

N. J. Ray, J.-H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, E. Feigenbaum, "Designer Metasurfaces for Antireflective Applications Enabled by Advanced Nanoparticle Technology," Adv. Opt. Mat 10, 2270037 (2022)

J. H. Yoo, N. J. Ray, M. Johnson H. T. Nguyen, E. Feigenbaum. "Laser-Assisted Tailored Patterning of Au Nanoparticles over Inch-Sized Area: Implications for Large Aperture Meta-Optics." ACS Applied Nano Materials 5, 10073-10080 (2022)

N. J. Ray, J. H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, E. Feigenbaum."All-Glass Metasurfaces for Ultra-Broadband and Large Acceptance Angle Antireflectivity: from Ultraviolet to Mid-Infrared." Adv. Opt. Mat 10, 20230013 (2023)

N. J. Ray, J.-H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, M. A. Johnson, E. Feigenbaum. "Birefringent Glass-Engraved Tilted Pillar Metasurfaces for High Power Laser Applications." Adv. Sci 10, 20230013. (2023)

E. Feigenbaum, "Nanostructured Layer For Graded Index Freeform Optics." U.S. Patent 10,612,145, issued,April 7, 2020.

E. Feigenbaum, Nathan J. Ray, J. H. Yoo, "System and method for repeated metal deposition-dewetting steps to form a nano-particle etching mask producing thicker layer of engraved metasurface." U.S. Patent 11,294,103 issued April 5, 2022.

J. H. Yoo, E. Feigenbaum "System and method for ablation assisted nano structure formation for graded index surfaces for optics." U.S. Patent 11,525,945, issued December 13, 2022.

E. Feigenbaum, J. Bude, J. M. Di-Nicola, H. T. Nguyen, C. Stolz "Angled directional etching through a mask to form a bi-refringent meta-surface." U.S. Patent 11,747,639, issued September 5, 2023.

J. H. Yoo, E. Feigenbaum, "System and Method for Transformative Interface/Surface Painting (TRIP) for Arbitrary 3D Surface/Interface Structures" U.S. Pat. App. No. 17/588,795-Conf. #6065, Filing Date: January 31, 2022.

E. Feigenbaum, "Durable all-glass metasurfaces for large aperture laser optics" (Presentation, IEEE RAPID Conference, Miramar Beach, FL, Sept 2023).

E. Feigenbaum, "All-glass metasurfaces for durable and large aperture laser optics" (Presentation, Spring MRS meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 2023).

E. Feigenbaum,"All-glass metasurface laser optics for lensing, antireflections, and waveplates" (SPIE Laser Damage  Meeting, 2023).

Nathan J. Ray, Jae H. Yoo; Hoang T. Nguyen, Michael A. Johnson, Salmaan H. Baxamusa, Selim Elhadj, Eyal Feigenbaum, "Robust Metasurfaces with Tailored Graded Index for High Power Laser Applications" (2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA,  2021).

Nathan J. Ray, Jake Yoo, Hoang Nguyen, Michael Johnson, Eyal Feigenbaum, "Glass-Engraved Metasurfaces: Advancements Toward Scalable and Durable High Power Laser Optics." Proc. SPIE 11910, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 2021, 1191018 (12 October 2021).

Nathan J. Ray, Jae-Hyuck Yoo, Hoang T. Nguyen, Michael A. Johnson, Eyal Feigenbaum. "Glass-engraved metasurfaces: the path to ultra-low reflectance, extreme broadband performance, and high acceptance angle for high power laser applications." Proc. SPIE 12300, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 2022, 1230009 (2 December 2022).

Jae-Hyuck Yoo, Nathan J. Ray, Hoang T. Nguyen, Michael A. Johnson, Eyal Feigenbaum, " Scalable laser printing process for high power laser glass-engraved meta optics masks." Proc. SPIE 12300, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 2022, 1230009 (2 December 2022).